Enabling Policies 

Enabling policies refer to policies, regulations, and other activities that build supportive infrastructure and policy frameworks to advance energy efficiency in a province.

Support for Financing

Provinces can provide support for financing through initiatives such as local improvement charges, soft loans, on-bill financing, loan guarantees, or by estalishing ‘green banks’.

Alberta

PACE Financing
In June 2018, the Legislative Assembly of Alberta passed an Act to Enable Clean Energy Improvements, which amends Alberta’s Municipal Government Act to introduce a municipal clean energy improvement tax. The legislation became effective January 1, 2019. Energy Efficiency Alberta is launching a pilot program with the City of Edmonton and is developing a program guide for municipalities in Winter 2019.

Loan Guarantees
The Green Loan Guarantee Program funded through the Energy Innovation Fund provides financing for facility owners or managers as well as credit enhancements to support financial institutions and utilities offering financing for energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean technology projects.

Last reviewed: August 2019

British Columbia

Municipal Finance
There are no mechanisms in British Columbia for municipally financed green technology unless this technology is owned and controlled by the municipality.

Green Bonds
In September 2018, the City of Vancouver made a $85 million “green bond” offering.

The province has issued green bonds. For instance, a 2016 offering was used to build a LEED Gold certified Penticton Regional Hospital new patient care tower.

Utility and On-Bill Financing
Fortis BC launched an on-bill financing program in 2012 in the city of Kelowna and Regional District of Similkameen. BC Hydro launched a program in the town of Colwood. These pilots experienced low uptake. Nelson Hydro and the Penticton Electric Utility offer on-bill financing, and FortisBC offers a Heat Pump Loan program to help customers upgrade from an electric furnace or baseboard heater to a high-efficiency air-source heat pump (see EfficiencyBC 'Financing')

The FortisBC and BC Hydro on-bill financing pilots were at the province's direction (see Improvement financing, Section 17.1 of the Clean Energy Act). Section 17.1 outlines the requirements/conditions under which a public utility may establish and maintain a program to offer financing to eligible persons for improving the energy efficiency of a building.[6]  Given the low uptake, this regulation is no longer in force. The CleanBC plan released in December 2019, however, committed to launching targeted financing. The expected date for this is fall 2019.

Third-Party Finance
Efficiency BC highlights the RBC Energy Saver Loan, and the VanCity Home Energy Loan, and potential for financing via home improvement contractors.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Manitoba

On-bill financing
Manitoba Hydro’s Pay-as-you-save (PAYS) financing program allows homeowners to use the estimated annual utility savings from energy savings pay for upgrades to space heating equipment, insulation, water heating and water conservation. The annual interest rate of the loan is fixed at a rate of 4.9% for the first 5 years of the loan and is paid back through the customer’s monthly energy bill. If the home is sold, the financing may be transferred to the next homeowner until it is paid off.

Manitoba Hydro’s Energy Finance Plan provides a loan repaid through the homeowner’s monthly bill for upgrades to electrical and natural gas systems. The loan is not transferable to the next homeowner if the house is sold. Up to $5,000 per residence in financing is available through this program, for a maximum term of 5 years at an annual interest rate of 6.75%.

The Residential Earth Power Loan support geothermal heat pumps, cold climate air source heat pumps, solar thermal water heaters, and solar PV systems. Monthly loan payments is made through the customer’s monthly energy bill. Up to $30,000 per residence in financing is available through this program, depending on the technology being installed.  The maximum term of the loan is 15 years and the annual interest rate is 4.9%, fixed for the first 5 years.

The Home Energy Efficiency Loan Program offers financing up to $7,500 per residence, of which $5,500 can be applied to the purchase of a high efficiency natural gas furnace for energy saving upgrades. The maximum term of the loan is 5 years (or 15 years of a high efficiency natural gas furnace or boiler has been purchased) at an annual interest rate of 4.8%, fixed for the first five years. The loan is due when the house is sold and is not transferable to the next homeowner.

Last reviewed: August 2019

New Brunswick

No support for financing identified.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Newfoundland and Labrador

On-Bill Financing
Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro also offers on-bill financing for heat pumps and insulation, and Newfoundland Power offers on-bill financing for measures such as insulation, thermostats, heat pumps, and R-2000 upgrades.

The energy efficiency loan program (EELP) offers low-interest loans that can be financed on utility bills. Eligible applicants can receive financing for up to $10,000 over 5 years at an interest rate of prime plus 1.5%. The program is operated by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador and takeCHARGE. Eligible measures include heat pumps, basement and attic insulation, and home energy assessments.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nova Scotia

PACE Financing
The Municipal Government Act was amended in 2010 to authorize PACE loans. Section 81A enabled municipal councils to make by-laws to enforce charges on private property, with the consent of the property owner and section 65(aca) notes the potential to finance energy efficiency equipment installations, including solar panels.

Starting in 2013, a Halifax program called “Solar City” financed solar hot water installations through a local improvement charge. This was the first program to use LIC funding on a large scale, supported by the Canadian Federation of Municipalities Green Municipal Fund.

The Clean Energy Program, operated by the Clean Foundation, provides PACE financing in the Town of Bridgewater, District of Lunenburg, District of Digby, District of Barrington, and is starting programs for Yarmouth and Cumberland.

Efficiency Nova Scotia’s My Energy Improvement Plan PACE Program offers full design, implementation and administration of PACE on a not-for-profit basis.

The Town of Bridgwater is exploring program expansion opportunities to allow even deeper energy retrofits through the Clean Net Zero program, which is currently in the pilot phase.

On-Bill Financing
Nova Scotia Power provides on-bill financing for heat pumps and electric thermal storage.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Northwest Territories

No support for financing identified.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nunavut

Under the Nunavut Housing Corporation’s Home Renovation Program participants can receive a forgivable loan to cover the cost of materials, freight and labour, to a maximum contribution of $65,000, depending on household income, and provided that any amount exceeding $50,000 is used specifically for energy efficient improvements.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Ontario

PACE Finance
PACE or “local improvement charge” financing was enabled in 2012 through Ontario Regulation 586/06. A clause was added to the definition of “work” to include “constructing energy efficiency works or renewable energy works”, and to include the “conservation of water”.

The City of Toronto Act was also amended under O. Reg 323/12 to enable PACE finance.

In March 2014, Toronto launched a pilot PACE program called Home Energy Loan Program (HELP).

Green Bank
The Green Ontario Fund or Ontario Climate Change Solutions Deployment Corporation was originally discussed as a “green bank”, but they did not offer any substantive financing programs before its programs were wound down in late 2018.

The November 2018 Ontario Environment Plan proposes creating the “Ontario Carbon Trust” which will “leverage private investment” and “utilize innovative and financing techniques and market development tools in partnership with the private sector”.

Green Bonds
Ontario has issued “green bonds” five times between 2014 and 2019, totalling $4 billion. The bonds finance transit and energy efficiency projects.

On-Bill Financing
Union Gas and Enbridge Gas were directed to provide “Open Bill Access”. This allows third party companies to use the utility bill to charge for services provided. The program is now called the Enbridge rate zone, and extending this program into the Union Gas rate zone is under consideration before the Ontario Energy Board.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Prince Edward Island

An Energy Efficiency Loan Program was launched by the government on November 27th, 2018, with a budget of $7.5 M, a 5% interest rate, and maximum loan size of $10,000.  It is administered by Efficiency PEI. 

Last reviewed: August 2019

Quebec

Green Bonds
Quebec has undertaken four green bond issues since its inaugural issue in February 2017. Projects have primarily focused on public transit, and targeted to institutional investors. Épargne Placements Québec (an organization that issues savings and retirement products from the Quebec government) issues fixed-rate green bonds, intended for the retail market.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Saskatchewan

Third-Party Financing
The Energy Star Loan Program is offered by SaskEnergy and SaskPower to provide residential customers 6.5% financing up to $15,000 over 5 years on the purchase and installation of eligible Energy Star certified equipment. The program ran from July 1, 2018 to May 31, 2019.

SaskEnergy provides financing for appliance upgrades, and offers commercial leasing for all natural gas heating options through an arrangement with Jyske.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Yukon

PACE Finance
Yukon pioneered the use of Local Improvement Charges to assist residents living in rural areas to extend electrical grid and telephone services to rural properties in 1984. This was later used to fund on-site renewable energy systems.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Research and Development

Continuing research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of novel energy efficiency technologies and experimenting with innovative program designs and delivery methods is essential to realizing the full energy savings potential of energy efficiency.

Alberta

Emission Reductions Alberta funds research, development, demonstration and implementation to reduce GHG emissions. One of its project categories includes “industrial process efficiency”.

Between 2014 and 2018, energy efficiency research comprised 4.2% of all energy-related research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) at universities and colleges in Alberta.

Last reviewed: August 2019

British Columbia

The CleanBC Building Innovation Fund provides funding for innovative, low-carbon building solutions. Funding is disbursed through three streams: Research, Commercialization, and Demonstration. 

The Innovative Clean Energy (ICE) Fund has been supporting clean energy technologies since 2008. This has included support for a variety of research projects including High Performance Windows certification, field testing of heat pump water heaters, field testing of cold climate heat pumps, natural gas heat pump prefeasibility study, modelling of the EnerGuide rating system, and the Canada ISO 50001 Implementation Incentive (industrial).

University of British Columbia is home to the UBC Pulp and Paper Research Centre, which conducts research on energy reduction and markets for mechanical pulps, which is partially supported by BC Hydro.   

Several other universities conduct research on energy efficiency in the province.  Between 2014 and 2018, energy efficiency research comprised 8.2% of all energy-related research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC).

Last reviewed: August 2019

Manitoba

Several universities conduct energy research and development within the province. From 2014-2018, 11.8% of energy resource-related NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council) funds were awarded for energy efficiency.

Last reviewed: August 2019

New Brunswick

Energy Smart NB is an NB Power initiative that encompasses 3 components: Smart Habits, Smart Grid, and Smart Solutions. Projects associated with this initiative include but are not limited to: LED Streetlights, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart Grid Version 1.0, smart thermostats, smart water heaters, demand response, and EVs.

From 2014-2018, 8% of energy resource-related NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council) funds awarded to researchers as New Brunswick universities were for energy efficiency.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Newfoundland and Labrador

The province has supported several RD&D energy-related projects, including for smart thermostats and thermal insulation.

Funding received by research institutes in Newfoundland and Labrador from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council (NSERC) for energy efficiency projects comprised 7.1% of all energy-related research funded by NSERC in the province between 2014 and 2018.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nova Scotia

Both Efficiency Nova Scotia and the government have supported energy efficiency RD&D, including studies of the province’s energy efficiency sector supply chain, microlending for energy efficiency, and old home retrofitting.

Several universities conduct research into energy efficiency in Nova Scotia.  Between 2014 and 2018, research funding for energy efficiency received through Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) grant programs comprised 9% of research funding for energy more broadly.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Northwest Territories

No information available.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nunavut

No information available. 

Last reviewed: August 2019

Ontario

Several universities conduct energy efficiency research and development within the province. From 2014-2018, 11.4% of energy resource related NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council) funds were awarded for energy efficiency.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Prince Edward Island

The province has supported research on cold climate heat pumps and energy storage.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Quebec

The Hydro-Québec Research Institute (IREQ) includes “energy use” as a core area of expertise. The Energy Technology Laboratory (LTE) in Shawinigan focused on technological innovation with respect to energy efficiency.

The Centre d'excellence en efficacité énergétique provides funding support for energy efficiency RD&D in the transportation sector.

The National Gas Technologies Centre undertakes research on energy efficiency.

Between 2014 and 2018, energy efficiency research comprised 15.5% of all energy-related research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) at universities and colleges in Québec, the highest share among all provinces.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Saskatchewan

Several universities conduct energy research and development in Saskatchewan. Between 2014 and 2018, 7.3% of energy resource-related NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council) funds were awarded for energy efficiency.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Yukon

There was a study from 2011-2017 on the thermal performance and durability of vacuum insulated panels building envelopes in Canada’s north.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Lead by Example

Governments can set an example by setting aggressive targets and undertaking energy efficiency improvements in publicly-owned buildings and vehicle fleets.

Alberta

Buildings
LEED Silver is the minimum standard for all new major construction projects since 2006.

The provincial government certified 89 buildings under the BOMA BEST program, and three government-owned buildings have achieved the BOMA BEST Platinum rating.

Vehicle Fleets
No policies found

Last reviewed: August 2019

British Columbia

Targets
All BC public sector organizations have a legislated requirement to be carbon neutral. This requirement includes all health authorities, K-12 schools, universities and colleges, Crown corporations, core ministries and independent offices.

Each year, organizations must measure, report, and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. All greenhouse gases emitted must be offset. A select number of organizations undergo a verification process to ensure their application of the quantification methodologies, monitoring equipment measurements and calculations are accurate.

The Climate Action Secretariat, Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy, facilitates organizations' actions with an online greenhouse gas inventory and reporting tool, and with guidance materials on greenhouse gas quantification and emission reduction strategies.

An update on progress was published in 2017.

Buildings
BC committed to reducing public sector building emissions by 50%  by 2030. 

Since 2010, new public sector buildings have been built to LEED Gold certification or equivalent. The BC Energy Step Code outlines a pathway to net-zero energy ready buildings, and the public sector is investigating how best to implement the Step Code to public sector buildings, including hospitals and clinics, schools, campuses and office buildings.

Carbon neutral government initiatives promote behavioural changes that conserve energy such as use of video conferencing rather than travel and promoting bike to work week.

Public sector buildings also undergo retrofits regularly and achieve energy efficiency improvements by taking advantage of latest proven technologies. The public sector is encouraged to considering using wood in new building construction, in part to reduce embodied carbon in buildings.

Vehicles
The public sector carbon neutrality requirement includes fleet emissions within scope. Organizations must report on emissions from all fleet vehicles, include marine, transit and school buses, off-road and road vehicles. Emissions from transit and school buses do not have to be offset.

BC recently signed onto the Express Lane of the West Coast Electric Vehicle Pledge. This pledge commits BC to have 10% of light duty vehicle purchases to be electric vehicles. Additionally, BC committed to reducing emissions from its fleet vehicles by 40% 2030 in CleanBC. 

Last reviewed: August 2019

Manitoba

Buildings
Manitoba Green Building Program includes requirements for government funded projects under The Climate Change and Emissions Reduction Act, Green Building Regulation MR 38/2013, which requires

  • Buildings be designed to a targeted energy efficiency level of at least 33% more energy efficient than the requirements of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings (1997)
  • Building design must achieve the targeted level of energy efficiency by achieving designation under the Manitoba Hydro Power Smart for Business, New Buildings Program.

Under Manitoba’s Green Building Program, new provincial government buildings and major renovations, must be at least 33% better than the Model National Energy Code for Buildings and be certified LEED Silver or better.

Vehicle Fleets
A fleet vehicle reorganization announced in October 2018 will remove 400 vehicles from the governments fleet. Staff will be encouraged to reduce travel time by using video and conference calls when possible. Monitoring devices will be installed in remaining cars to track practices such as idling, speed, and fuel consumption.

Last reviewed: August 2019

New Brunswick

Buildings
Under the Green Building Policy larger buildings (floor area greater than 2,000 m2) shall achieve a minimum LEED silver certification, or Green Globes standard. Buildings with floor area between 1,000-2,000 m2 shall meet a prescribe programs designed to reduce energy savings by at least 20-30% beyond the 1997 Model National Energy Code for Buildings, and meet the intent of the LEED Canada-NC requirements. Smaller buildings (floor area between 500-999 m2) have prescriptive requirements based on “Advanced Building Core Performance” Guide requirements.

The province’s most recent Climate Change Action Plan lists a number of actions for provincial buildings, including strengthening the Green Building Policy to include higher performance standards for energy efficiency.

Fleets
The Green Vehicle Policy was adopted in 2008, requires that replacement vehicles be in the top 10% in their class for fuel efficiency, with extra incentives to purchase hybrid electric vehicles, and restrictions on non-hybrid SUV and pick-ups.

The province’s most recent Climate Change Action Plan indicates the government will develop a green transportation policy to electrify government fleets, implement new fleet procurement practices, and promote a culture of minimized travel for public servants.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Newfoundland and Labrador

Buildings
The 2011 Building Better Buildings Policy commits to ensuring that government-funded buildings that were built, or received substantial renovations, exceed the 1997 Model National Energy Code for Buildings by 25%, strive to achieve a LEED Silver standard, and complete a life-cycle project analysis.

Vehicle Fleets
2018-19 commitment to achieve a 10% reduction in inventory of light-duty vehicles. Tender specifications for vehicle purchases have been updated to include fuel consumption and alternative fuels.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nova Scotia

Buildings
As of November 2008, all building construction financed by the government of Nova Scotia will be designed and constructed to a minimum LEED Silver standard, an energy efficiency improvement 35% above the 1997 Model National Building Code. Buildings must also provide a post-occupancy comparison of target efficiencies.

Efficiency Nova Scotia’s Onsite Energy Management program includes benchmarking participatory organization’s energy use against similar organizations - Housing Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Health Authority and TIR Buildings.

The NS Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal is using Energy Star Portfolio Manager to benchmark nearly 80 department owned buildings as part of the Energy Conservation Program.1  This benchmarking initiative is associated with a building recommissioning project.

Vehicle Fleets
An April 2013 Strategy “Choose how you move” states that it will require provincial infrastructure initiatives, including buildings, schools, road facilities, to be planned, located, and designed in a way that supports sustainable transportation goals. 

ReThink: Greener Choices at Work is an internal government sustainability initiative that proposes active transportation infrastructure in government buildings (e.g. bike racks and showers), encouragement of active and public transportation, and managing fleets by right-sizing and purchasing best-in-class vehicles and exploring shared resources between departments.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Northwest Territories

Buildings
Target to exceed the 2011 National Energy Code for Buildings by 10% for new government buildings established. The draft 2030 Energy Strategy, released in August 2017, states that government is reviewing the 2015 Model National Energy Code for Buildings to reach new targets. Capital Asset Retrofit Fund (CARF) is a rolling fund targeted at government buildings.

Vehicle Fleets
The 2030 Energy Strategy commits to fleet management, including right-sizing vehicles, assessing integration of hybrid and LNG vehicles into government fleet, use of fleet management software, training on fuel efficient driving, and pilot auxiliary heaters to reduce idling.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nunavut

Buildings
Nunavut Energy Management Program creates a 20% reduction target in energy consumption in buildings owned by the Department of Community and Government Services. The 2007 Energy Strategy also calls for retrofitting all government owned in Iqualuit, followed by other territorial communities, and retrofits in municipal buildings and buildings owned by the Nunavut Housing Corporation.

The Good Practices Energy Guide provides guidance on energy management in government buildings.

The Government of Nunavut New Commercial Building Program discussed in the 2007 Energy Strategy calls on the government to seek ways to mandate a minimum rating in all new buildings, referencing LEED and the need to consider arctic conditions.

Vehicle Fleets
The 2007 Energy Strategy discussed a 5% reduction target for government-related travel.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Ontario

The Ontario government’s Environment Plan, released in November 2018, includes several commitments related to integrating climate change into government decision making.  The plan commits to developing a Climate Change Governance Framework, which will include reporting on climate change measures, procurement changes, continued execution of a high-performance building strategy, investments in energy cost savings such as meeting LEED standards, optimizing office space use, advanced automation and integration to measure, monitor, and control operations and maintenance at the lowest cost, and developing tools to help decision makers better understand climate impacts.

Targets
Ontario’s five-year climate change action plan 2016-2020 included a cross government target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 50% below 2006 levels by 2030, and to develop a strategy to move towards carbon neutrality. The Ontario government’s Environment Plan, released in November 2018, does not re-iterate this targets. It discusses developing a Climate Change Governance Framework, which will include reporting on climate change measures, procurement changes, continued execution of a high-performance building strategy, investments in energy cost savings such as meeting LEED standards, and optimizing office space use.

Buildings
The Broader Public Service has been required to report on building energy use annually since 2012, originally under O. Reg 397/11 under the Green Energy Act and re-enacted after the Green Energy Repeal Act, 2018 passed. 

There is a high-performance building automation strategy for government buildings, noted in the 2018 Environment Plan.

The Environment Plan calls for future renovations of government buildings maximize energy cost savings. For instance, Ontario is building new correctional facilities to meet LEED standards.

Vehicle Fleets
The Ontario government’s Environment Plan notes continued support for purchase of electric ferries, connecting Wolfe and Amherst Islands to the mainland.

The Ontario Environment Plan reports that 70% of its passenger vehicle fleet is comprised of plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Prince Edward Island

Buildings
The 2018 Climate Action plans commits to implementing a greening government program and developing a GHG emissions inventory for government. It also commits to installing 20 additional biomass heating systems in public buildings.

The PEI Climate Change Secretariat has endorsed utilizing NECB 2017 for all new government owned buildings.

Vehicle Fleets
The 2018 Climate Action Plan commits to increasing the use of electric vehicles in its light-duty vehicle fleet.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Quebec

Targets
The TEQ Master Plan calls for the development of energy reduction targets for different government departments, and the adoption of a “framework law” for government lead by example initiatives by 2020/21. The TEQ Master Plan calls for embedding energy transition experts in government departments, funding best practice examples, and enabling municipalities 

Specific targets for energy consumption (GJ/m2), for 2022-23 and 2029-30 exist for major public sector real estate holdings.

The 2030 Energy Policy calls for applying energy efficiency measures on at least 5% of the total surface of public buildings, each year, from 2016-2030, reducing building energy consumption by 15% in public buildings from a 2012 base year.

Buildings
The TEQ Master Plan calls for mandatory recommissioning of public building mechanical systems and public disclosure of public building energy data.

The TEQ Master Plan calls for converting all building fossil fuel use for heat to renewable energy. No public buildings should be principally heated by fuel oil by 2023, except in rare circumstances.

The 2013-2020 Action Plan on climate change calls for obtaining an energy performance in new buildings 20% higher than the 2011 National Energy Code for Buildings, and also set objectives related to eliminating fuel oil use in public buildings.[2]

Vehicle Fleets
The Politique d’acquisition gouvernementale pour les véhicules légers (government policy on the acquisition of light vehicles), in place since Jan 2014, requires new vehicle purchases or existing vehicle replacements to be electric or hybrid electric.

The TEQ Master Plan (p. 159) creates targets to reduce energy consumption in light-duty vehicies by 30% in 2022-23 and 50% in 2029-30, from a 2012-13 base year, and to add 1000 additional electric vehicles by 2022-23.

The TEQ Master Plan calls for improved fleet management practices, and to collect fuel consumption data for all light and heavy vehicles, adoption of home-to-work travel plans, and to limit the travel of public building users.

The 2030 Energy Policy calls for reducing energy consumption (L/100 km) by 50% for light-duty vehicles, from a 2012 base year, and to add 1000 electric or hybrid vehicles to the fleet by 2020. The latter targets is also outlined in the transport electrification action plan (2015-2020).

Last reviewed: August 2019

Saskatchewan

Buildings
The 2017 Climate Change Strategy states that the government will require new and renovated government buildings to exceed the 2015 National Energy Code for Buildings by 10%. The strategy also calls for increasing the number of government buildings with a sustainability certification. By 2016-2017 47 government buildings received BOMA BEST certification.

Vehicle Fleets
The 2017 Climate Change Strategy calls for using idle time limiters on government trucks, and commits to greater efficiency and lower emissions in government transportation fleets.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Yukon

Buildings
The 2009 Energy Strategy calls for new construction funded by the government to meet energy efficiency standards.

Vehicle Fleets
In 2016, the Yukon government added an electric vehicle to its fleet as a pilot project to test the vehicles range and recharge times at winter temperatures.

The 2009 Energy Strategy calls for targets for vehicle use and fuel consumption in the government’s vehicle fleet.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Grid Modernization

Grid modernization refers to new technologies and practices to enhance the resiliency of energy grids, such as advanced metering infrastructure and innovative rate designs.

Alberta

Advanced metering
A market rule put in place after deregulation in the early 2000s required sites with peak demand over 2MW to have a smart meter, and allowed for distribution utilities to establish their own, lower thresholds, if desired. In its 2011 final report, the Alberta Utilities Commission’s Smart Grid Inquiry noted that industrial and commercial customers accounting for around 70% of consumption were equipped with smart meters.

Electricity distribution companies in Alberta that have proposed advanced meter roll-outs include FortisAlberta, ATCO Electric, and the City of Lethbridge. The City of Edmonton also has an advanced metering program.

Non-wires/Non-pipe alternatives
The transmission regulation of Alberta’s 2007 Electric Utilities Act describes the use of non-wire solutions in transmission systems planning. As outlined in Part 3 section 15(3) of the Act, in considering the design and planning of a new electricity transmission system, the Alberta Electric System Operator may recommend non-wire solutions in lieu of a transmission system if:

  • There is limited potential for growth of load in the area, and the cost of the non-wire solution is materially less than the life-cycle cost of the transmission wires solution compared over an equivalent study period, or
  • The non-wire solution is required to ensure reliable service due to the shorter lead time of the non-wires solution.

The Alberta Electricity System Operator notes “Transmission Must Run”, whereby a generator is required to be online and operating as a specific output in a particular area to compensate for insufficient transmission, as a non-wire alternative that is limited by regulation.

In 2011, the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC) disallowed DSM-related costs in ATCO Gas' 2011-2012 General Rate Application Phase in Decision 2011-450. The Commission ruled that the reduction of consumption was not intended to be captured in the Gas Utilities Act and that the costs associated with ATCO gas' DSM programs, both existing and proposed, were removed entirely from rate base, revenue requirement, and rates. This ruling seems to place a strong restriction on the ability of utilities to pursue DSM programs, though there may be latitude to justify non-pipe alternatives as "providing safe, reliable and economic delivery of gas to customers."

Geo-targeting
Energy Efficiency Alberta programs do not include geo-targeting of energy efficiency and/or demand response.

Conservation voltage reduction
In 2018, the City of Lethbridge implemented grid optimization technologies to lower the operating voltage of the electricity distribution system, and improve the overall energy efficiency of the grid.

Rate design
The province’s electricity market was deregulated in 2001, which means consumers can choose between different retailers with differing prices and rate designs.  Electricity and natural gas consumers can opt for a regulated rate option if they opt to not sign up with an electricity retailer.

In June 2017, the Government of Alberta implemented an electricity price cap (energy charge cap) of $0.068 per kWh of electricity. Until May 31st, 2021, Albertans on the regulated price option electricity plan will pay either the market electricity price or the government cap whichever is lower, for the energy charge portion of the bill.

The Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC)'s Distribution Inquiry will be addressing rate design. From the AUC December 6, 2018 bulletin: "A key issue for the Commission, given its mandate, is whether the current approach to rates and rate design needs to be re-evaluated in light of new technology advances and market entry of new and non-traditional participants providing alternative technology."

Other
In March 2018, with funding support from Western Economic Development Canada, Medicine Hat College in Medicine Hat Alberta established the Community Renewable Energy Microgrid Demonstration Project. This project includes testing solar thermal and two electric vehicle charging stations.

In the Summer of 2018, the Government of Alberta also launched a micro-generation program through the Electric Utilities Act. This program allows Albertans to meet their own electricity needs by generating electricity from renewable or alternative sources. Micro-generators that produce excess electricity receive credits for what they feed to the grid, differing between small micro-generators (under 150 kW) and large micro-generators (over 150 kW).

Last reviewed: August 2019

British Columbia

Advanced metering
The 2010 BC Clean Energy Act (section 17) called for a program to installed advanced meters by the end of 2012. BC Hydro launched a program in July 2011.  A 2013 Direction to the British Columbia Utilities Commission set standards and conditions under which electricity consumers in the province can continue to use a legacy meter or choose to use a “radio-off” smart meter, rather than the standard smart meter model.

As of December 2016, over 99% of BC Hydro households have a new smart meter installed. FortisBC Inc. (FBC - electric utility) completed it's AMI (advanced metering infrastructure) installation program in 2015.   Fortis BC Energy Inc. (FEI - natural gas utility) does not currently have advanced metering in place for any but its largest commercial / industrial customers.

Non-wires alternatives 
Electricity

BC Hydro includes an estimate of the capacity savings resulting from the energy efficiency initiatives in the DSM Plan as part of its load forecast after DSM and as a result these reductions are inherent in the consideration of transmission and distribution planning.  An estimate of the value from transmission and distribution capacity savings is included in the cost effectiveness of DSM expenditures. In addition, BC Hydro has formed an integrated planning working group, whose function is to utilize cross-business members to develop and assess alternative proposals to address local area capacity needs.   

BC Hydro also has active pilot projects underway to test the use of demand response and geo-targeted energy efficiency to reduce peak load requirements to avoid potential substation upgrades.  The capacity focused DSM pilots use hubs linked to the customers smart meter data and combine control of connected home devices.  BC Hydro also operates a Behaviour Program for residential customers and optimization offers for business customers that make use of enhanced customer energy usage data. 

FortisBC considers non-wires alternatives on a project by project basis in its certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) filings.  FortisBC has also developed and utilizes a deferred capital expenditure factor to put an economic value on its DSM capacity savings.

The utility is currently undertaking a demand response pilot program in a region that is experiencing summer capacity constraints.

Natural Gas
FortisBC Energy is exploring the potential of gas DSM programs to defer or avoid infrastructure through its integrated resource planning but does not yet have metering in place to thoroughly examine and analyze opportunities.

Conservation voltage reduction
BC Hydro includes var-volt optimization on its system in the development of the load forecast after DSM.  FortisBC has tested and utilized CVR on a regional basis for grid stability purposes, though not for the primary purpose of achieving energy savings. 

Rate design

Block Rates: Residential rates and some commercial rates charge a higher energy charge above a certain consumption threshold.   BC Hydro also has a 2-step rate for transmission service customers, wherein the second step is intended to represent the long-run marginal cost for new electric energy.  FortisBC has applied for and received BCUC approval to migrate its residential stepped rate back to a uniform flat rate structure over five years.

Power factor surcharge: BC Hydro Medium and Large General Service Rate customers receive a power factor surcharge for lower efficiency customers (if ratio of active power measured in kW to reactive power measured in kVar drops below 90%).

Electric Vehicle Charging. BC Reg 36/2018 to the Strata Property Act enables variable user fees in “strata housing” where owners own individual lots as well as common property and assets in common. This enables charging for electricity usage from charging electric vehicles.  The BCUC is currently leading a review of public charging for EVs, including rates.

Fortis BC has an electric vehicle charging rate ($9.00 per 30 minute period).

Last reviewed: August 2019

Manitoba

Advanced metering
In January 2007, Manitoba Hydro launched a pilot project for the installation of advanced electricity and natural gas meters. The project concluded in 2009, with the final report stating the need for study of anticipated benefits and project risks.

In Manitoba Hydro’s Consolidated Capital Expenditure Forecast covering the years from 2011 to 2032, advanced metering infrastructure is identified as a $30.9 million initiative, set to commence in March 2019.

EnerTrend, an energy profiling tool developed by Manitoba Hydro specifically for large industrial and commercial customers utilizes advanced interval metering to collect near real-time data on the energy consumption of facilities.

Non-wires alternatives / Geo-targeting
Manitoba Hydro has started initial work on developing a location specific DSM marginal value to be used to identify system constraints that could benefit from geo-targeting.

Manitoba Hydro has been geo-targeting for reasons other than distribution system constraints. Recent examples include the communities of Dauphin and The Pas, who committed to a Community Energy Plan with Manitoba Hydro. Similarly, Manitoba Hydro targeted select First Nations including Opaskwayak; Peguis, and Long Plain First Nation.

Conservation voltage reduction
Manitoba Hydro does not use conservation voltage reduction

Rate design
Declining block rate. General Service electricity customers receive a lower energy charge after a threshold consumption level.

Alternative Rate options include an energy charge based on spot market conditions, and curtailable rate program for industrial customers.

Last reviewed: August 2019

New Brunswick

Advanced metering
NB Power made an application to the NB Energy and Utilities Board in 2017 to approve advanced metering infrastructure, but the plan was not approved by the regulatory board.

Non-wires alternatives / Geo-targetting
None

Conservation voltage reduction
NB Power is testing conservation voltage reduction as part of a Grid Modernization Research and Development Pilot Project, with Siemens, Natural Resources Canada, and the National Research Council.

Rate design
Residential electricity customers pay a flat energy charge.

General Service electricity customers and small industrial customers pay a declining block rate and demand charges.  There is also an interruptible energy product available to large Industrial Customers.

Other
New Brunswick Power’s ten-year plan (2019-2028) includes “Energy Smart NB” (formerly known as “Reduce and Shift Demand”) is a long-term plan to modernize the decades old grid and shift in-province electricity demand to defer the next significant generation investment. It includes “smart grid” (technology and software), “smart habits” (energy efficiency and demand response), “smart solutions” (new products and services that engage consumers and leverage demand side management and smart grid technology) elements.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Newfoundland and Labrador

Advanced metering
Approximately 58% of Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro’s meters are automatic reading meters. Newfoundland Power conducted a pilot program on direct control for hot water tanks which involved installment of smart meters, though this was on a small scale.

Non-wires alternatives / Geo-targetting
No actitivities identified. 

Conservation voltage reduction
Newfoundland Power uses conservation voltage reduction to manage peak load in the winter.

Rate design
Newfoundland Power and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro general service customers have a declining block rate, with lower energy charge beyond a threshold level of consumption.  Demand charges are higher during peak months of the year.

Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro domestic diesel customers have an inclining block rate, with higher energy charges after particular blocks of consumption per month.

Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro Industrial Customers pay separate rates for a fixed amount of total industrial energy demand supplied by a “development block” and a “market block” based on New York market prices.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nova Scotia

Advanced metering
A Nova Scotia Power $133 M plan to install 500,000 smart meters between January 2019 and the end of 2020 was approved by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board in June 2018.

Non-wires alternatives / Geo-targetting
EfficiencyOne and NS Power were ordered by the Utility and Review Board, in 2016, to begin investigating non-wires alternatives and locational DSM (geotargeting) techniques, as applicable to Nova Scotia. Three reports on the topic have been provided under - M07815. These reports provided conceptual design information and proposed preliminary techniques for economic comparison.

In Q3 of 2019, EfficiencyOne will begin a Locational DSM pilot in the Kentville, NS area. This pilot will use both energy efficiency and demand reduction techniques to alleviate distribution loading and is planned to operate until the end of 2020.

Conservation voltage reduction
Conservation voltage reduction is not used in Nova Scotia.

Rate design
An optional time of day tariff is available for residential electricity customers who employ electric thermal storage equipment.

There is a declining block rate for general and small industrial electricity customers (lower price after a kWh consumption threshold).

Interruptible rates are available for large industrial and extra large industrial customers

Nova Scotia has a fuel adjustment mechanism, which is a mandatory rider applying to many electric rate schedules.

Other
Active demand response is currently in the investigation stage in NS - 2019 DSM Potential Study will include active demand response. NS Power is currently testing both distribution-scale and behind-the-meter battery storage as part of the Intelligent Feeder Project, as well as certain other smart grid technologies.[4] NS Power historically participated in the Power Shift Atlantic project, which investigated demand response techniques.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Northwest Territories

Advanced metering
The 2013 Energy Action Plan calls for the installation of smart meters in four communities over three years.

Rate design
Electricity rates vary between different communities. The majority of residential electricity rates have an inclining block rate, with higher prices for higher levels of electricity usage. Businesses have a uniform electric energy charge.

Last reviewed: August 2018

Nunavut

Advanced metering
The Qulliq Energy Corporation (QEC) launched the Iqaluit Smart Grid program in 2016. The program installed over 4,000 smart meters and QEC also installed a specialized smart meter transformer, a server to store smart meter data, and software, which allows for the transmission of smart meter data between the smart meter database and QEC’s billing system. Over the next 5 years, the performance of the Iqaluit Smart Grid program will be monitored to determine if its targets (1-2% demand reduction and 1% energy savings) are met. This program received $1,350,000 in funding from Natural Resources Canada’s ecoENERGY Innovation Initiative.

QEC identifies the Iqaluit Smart Grid project as something to replicated in other Nunavut communities in the future.

Non-wires alternatives
Nunavut energy system is comprised of a series of isolated grids. As such the Qulliq Energy Corporation has no regional electricity transmission capacity or transmission assets.

Rate design
The Qulliq Energy Corporation has a “community based rate design” with rates differing across Nunavut’s 25 communities to reflect costs in different territories. These area-based rates to do not necessarily reflect local costs.

The Nunavut Electricity Subsidy Program (NESP) subsidizes electricity consumption for small commercial and residential customers. The subsidies are removed after a threshold level of electricity consumption.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Ontario

Advanced metering
The government announced a Smart Metering Initiative in April 2004 with a target of complete coverage for all residential and small business ratepayers by 2010. Ontario has completed a full deployment of smart meters  residential and small business customers with demand under 50kW. There are approximately 5 million smart meters in Ontario. By August 21, 2020, all distribution connected customers with monthly average peak demand of over 50kW must have an interval meter installed.

Green Button Standard

The Green Button Standard allows households and businesses access their utility data through energy management tools and applications.

On December 14, 2017 the government passed legislative amendments to the Green Energy Act, 2009 and Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 to enable Ontario to establish a regulatory framework to require electricity and natural gas utilities to implement Green Button and prescribe certification requirements by a deadline through regulation as well as reporting requirements. In addition the amendments gave the Ontario Energy Board authority to enforce Green Button requirements for electricity and natural gas utilities and grant implementation extensions for utilities based on criteria to be set out in regulation. The provisions in the Green Energy Act, 2009 were repealed and re-enacted in the Electricity Act, 1998 through the Green Energy Repeal Act, 2019 on January 1, 2019.

The draft “Made in Ontario Environment Plan” released in November 2018 for consultation included a commitment to “provide customers with access to their energy data by working with electricity and natural gas utilities to implement the Green button Standard.” The commitment also includes “support [for] water utilities to implement Green Button on a voluntary basis.”

Relevant Links

A Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity Distributors: A Performance Based Approach: https://www.oeb.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/Report_Renewed_Regulatory_Framework_RRFE_20121018.pdf

Supplemental Report on Smart Grid https://www.oeb.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/Supplemental_Report_on_Smart_Grid_20130211.pdf

Natural Gas

Enbridge Gas Inc. does not have an AMI deployment plan in place. However, the recent ICF Report: Natural Gas Integrated Resource Planning commissioned by Enbridge found that there would need to be changes in Ontario energy policy and utility regulatory structure to facilitate the use of DSM to reduce infrastructure investments. Of these required changes one would be “the approval to invest in, and recover the costs of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) necessary to collect hourly data on the impacts of DSM programs and measures. Most utilities are able to identify peak hourly data only at a system gate station level and further granularity is limited. Advanced metering would be required in order to substantiate peak hour reductions from geo-targeted IRP.”

Non-wires alternatives
Local distribution companies are required by the Ontario Energy Board to "When applicable and appropriate, capital and investment planning by regulated entities must demonstrate the consideration and/or adoption of innovative processes, services, business models, and technologies as well as an awareness of innovation and best practices."

The Conservation and Demand Management Requirement Guidelines for Electricity Distributors (EB-2014-0278) provide guidance (section 4.1) on applications for distribution rate funded conservation programs (divided into four classes of programs) to defer distribution infrastructure investments.

Demand Response

IESO procures Demand Response resources for the Bulk Electricity System through annual auctions which are conducted on a zonal basis (Ontario is divided into 10 electricity zones at the bulk-level). LDCs are able to seek Ontario Energy Board funding approval for local (i.e. distribution-level) Demand Response and Energy Efficiency programs where they can demonstrate these programs would be a cost-effective solution to deferring wires investment.

The Interim Framework running from April 1st, 2019 – Dec, 31, 2020 includes a budget for Local Distribution Company programs. The IESO could assign priority to programs that meet local or regional grid needs.

Pilot Projects

The IESO is working on formalizing a transmission planning process based on local achievable potential study pilot projects. This is part of the IESO’s Regional Planning Process Review.

Toronto Hydro is piloting a rate-funded conservation/demand response (DR) program that is expected to contract close to 12 MW of demand response by its completion in mid 2019. In its current application, the LDC is asking for another $4.6 million over 4 years for more local demand response programs that would defer distribution infrastructure as part of its Station Expansions Program.

The IESO is implementing a pilot project, the IESO York Region Non-Wires Alternative & Interoperability Demonstration, to establish a local market for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) to relieve loading on local network infrastructure during peak periods that is interoperable with IESO-administered wholesale energy market. The project is jointly funded by IESO and the Natural Resources Canada Green Infrastructure Phase II Smart Grid Demonstration and Deployment program.

Natural Gas

The natural gas distributors have filed a transition plan with the Ontario Energy Board to consider more closely integrating DSM with infrastructure planning and DSM as a “non-pipe alternative”. This includes pilot studies to be completed in 2019 to consider the impact of DSM on peak demand to avoid new infrastructure.

Conservation voltage reduction
 In 2014, Hydro Ottawa was supported by the IESO Conservation Fund to run a demonstration project to see if Conservation Voltage Regulation could produce quantifiable electricity savings for customers.

Entegrus is implemeting a voltage regulation system, enabling conservation voltage reduction in the town of Thamesville. Grid Edge Control Devices from Varentec Inc. will be installed to establish an integrated smart grid solution, facilitating high-level grid control and visualization, as well as energy conservation through voltage reduction.

Additional LDCs have implemented VVO/CVR initiatives with funding from the Ministry of Energy Smart Grid Fund, including Entegrus, Hydro One, London Hydro, and EnWin. 

Rate design
Most residential and small businesses electricity customers are charged time of use rates.

Under the Industrial Conservation Initiative large industries receive incentives to reduce peak electricity demand. The Global Adjustment is charged to eligible consumers on the basis of their share of the total system demand during the highest five peak hours of the year.

The Ontario Energy Board has developed a Regulated Price Plan roadmap. A major element includes the piloting of new pricing and non-price mechanisms.

An OEB report on rate design for Commercial and Industrial customers in an evolving energy sector can be found here. It considers the implications of distribution companies becoming platforms for services such as balancing, power quality, storage, and redistributing power from users connected to their systems.

Other
The Energy Transformation Network of Ontario was originally created as the “Smart Grid Forum” in 2009. The network comprises utility sector, industry associations, public agencies, and universities working together to develop the Smart Grid in Ontario.

The Grid Innovation Fund (formerly the Technology Development Fund and Conservation Fund) has existed since 2005 to support projects that enable customers to better manage their energy consumption or reduce the costs associated with maintaining reliable operation in the province’s grid.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Prince Edward Island

Advanced metering
In 2010, the City of Summerside installed new smart meters on 400 homes and businesses as a pilot project.[1]

Non-wires alternatives
The 2016-2017 Energy Strategy notes that geotargeted energy efficiency can avoid the need to build transmission and distribution capacity. The plan calls for developing a set of guidelines for when geotargeted energy efficiency should be considered and developing geotargeted energy efficiency protocols.

Conservation voltage reduction

Rate design
A declining block rate for residential and small industrial electricity customers with a lower energy charge above a threshold.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Quebec

Advanced metering
Hydro-Quebec notes that over 3.9m communicating meters have been installed in the province, or 98% of all meters requiring replacement.

Conservation voltage reduction
Hydro-Quebec conducted the ‘CATVAR’ (1, 2) project between 2007 and 2016 to install and demonstrate equipment to manage distribution grid voltage and reactive power. The project was cancelled in 2016 due to planned energy surpluses and less than expected energy savings (though the deployed equipment will be maintained on the network until end-of-life, and thus will continue to deliver some energy savings).

Rate design
Hydro-Québec is gradually rolling out two dynamic pricing for residential and business customers, starting April 1st, 2019. These rates will provide options to receive a credits for using less electricity during critical peak times, and an option to face higher electricity prices during critical peak events and lower prices otherwise (rate flex D).

Inclining block rates for “domestic” electricity customer classes with higher energy charge above a threshold level of consumption. Interruptible rates are available for large or medium power customers.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Saskatchewan

Advanced metering
As of March 2019, SaskEnergy installed 390,000 advanced natural gas meters in Saskatchewan, reaching 98% of its customers. 

SaskPower has rolled out 8500 Commercial and Industrial (C&I) smart meters through two pilots, and 20,000 additional C&I meters are expected to be deployed over 2019 and 2020.  A future pilot is being defined to address high value residential customers. 

In Saskatoon, 99% of Saskatoon Light and Power customers have smart meters installed, after the city began deployment in 2008.

Non-wires alternatives
No activities identified.

Conservation voltage reduction
No activities identified.

Rate design
SaskPower electricity rates are based on a flat energy charge for residential customers except for diesel systems, which have an inclining block rate with a higher energy charge above a kWh per month threshold.

Farm and business rates include an increasing base charge above 50 kVA, and increasing energy charges above a kWh consumption threshold.  There is a time-of-use rate option for large industrial, commercial, or farm customers.[2]

Other
SaskPower has four other major initiatives underway, including the development of an outage management system, a distribution SCADA system, substation automation, and creating a new distribution control centre.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Yukon

Advanced metering
No advanced meter roll-out in the territory. In 2010, the Yukon Electrical Company proposal to install advanced meters was rejected by the utility board.

Non-wires alternatives
No information available.

Conservation voltage reduction
No information available.

Rate design
Rates vary by service area. Inclining block rates with higher energy charges above a consumption threshold are prominent for residential and general service customers classes.

Yukon Energy industrial customers can receive a peak shaving credit.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Carbon Pricing

Carbon pricing can help reduce market barriers to energy efficiency by increasing the cost of fossil fuel-based energy and related products, and when associated revenues are directed toward energy efficiency programs and projects.

Alberta

Alberta first introduced a carbon price for large emitters in 2007 under the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation. Large emitters needed to pay $15/tonne if they failed to reduce emissions intensity of their production based on a facility-specific baseline.

In 2015, the industrial system was changed to set emissions intensity performance based on an industry best practice benchmark rather than a facility-specific benchmark. The carbon price was also expanded to implement a $30/tonne in 2018 levy on household energy use and transportation fuel. Proceeds from the carbon levy were used to support energy efficiency programs.

The Government of Alberta replealed the carbon levy in May 2019, and the federal backstop carbon price is scheduled to come into effect in the province in January 2020.

In October 2019, a new industrial carbon pricing system was proposed by the provincial government,  under the Technology Innovation and Emissions Reduction Implementation Act.

Last reviewed: November 2019

British Columbia

BC implemented a carbon tax within its 2008/9 budget, starting at $10 per tonne and increasing to $30/tonne in 2012. The carbon tax is a broad-based tax that applies to the purchase or use of fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, natural gas, heating oil, propane and coal, unless a specific exemption applies (for information on specific exemptions, see our exemptions page). The use of fuels includes all uses, even if the fuel is not combusted. Carbon tax also applies to the use of combustibles, such as peat and tires, when used to produce heat or energy.

On April 1, 2018, B.C.'s carbon tax rate rose from $30 to $35 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (tCO2e). The tax rate will increase each year by $5 per tonne until it reaches $50 per tonne in 2021.  Beginning in the 2019 fiscal year, the portion of carbon tax revenues generated from industry above $30/t will be used to fund industrial emissions reduction support programs.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Manitoba

Manitoba has a carbon price under the federal government’s carbon pricing “backstop”. Thus a carbon price was in place for large industrial facilities in January 2019 and for fuel producers and distributors in April 2019.

Last reviewed: August 2019

New Brunswick

New Brunswick has a carbon price under the federal government’s carbon pricing “backstop”. Thus a carbon price was in place for large industrial facilities in January 2019 and for fuel producers and distributors in April 2019.

New Brunswick intends to submit a Made-In-NB approach to the Output Based Pricing System (large emitters) in July 2019. It is currently out for public comment on the GNB website. The Climate Change Act created the Climate Change Fund which can be used to fund GHG reduction initiatives like energy efficiency. If the plan is approved, it is expected there will be funds available for efficiency programs.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Newfoundland and Labrador

A “Made in Newfoundland” approach to carbon pricing came into effect on January 1, 2019. The system includes an intensity-based performance-based standards for large industrial facilities and large electricity generation, and a carbon tax on transportation, building fuels, small electricity generation, and other fuels. The carbon tax rate commences at $20/tonne, and the provincial gas tax will be reduced to achieve parity of gasoline taxation with the other Atlantic provinces.

While there is direct earmarking of funds for energy efficiency, the 2019 budget spending on efficiency, GHG reductions and climate change adaptation increased by approximately the value of the projected carbon tax revenue.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nova Scotia

A Nova Scotia specific cap and trade program came into effect on January 1, 2019. The program targets reductions 45-50% below 2005 levels by 2030. Most allowances are set to be distributed for free, with some auctioning of additional allowances with a floor price of $20/tonne. The province is creating a “green fund” to manage auction revenues.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Northwest Territories

Carbon Pricing will be in place in July 2019. A carbon price will start at $20/tonne and increase annually to reach $50/tonne in 2022. Avaiation fuel is exempt and costs related to home heating will be fully rebated.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Nunavut

An output-based pricing system will be in place for emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries, and a charge on fuel producers and distributors will apply in July 2019. In recognition of unique circumstances special provisions are made for fuels used for aviation within the territory and for diesel-fired electricity generation in remote communities.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Ontario

On October 31, 2018, Ontario passed the Cap and Trade Cancellation Act repealing the Climate Change Mitigation and Low-carbon Economy Act, 2016 and providing for the wind down of the cap and trade program. Ontario is challenging the imposition of the federal carbon pricing backstop in court, arguing that the measure exceeds the power of the federal government.

On February 12, 2019, Ontario released a regulatory proposal for  an Emissions Performance Standard (EPS) program for the industrial sector. Ontario developed the EPS as an alternative to the output-based pricing system (OBPS) component of the federal carbon plan.

Under EPS, payments collected through the program are proposed to go into a fund that would support greenhouse gas reduction initiatives in industry. Further details are still to be confirmed.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Prince Edward Island

The federal carbon pollution pricing system will be implemented in PEI for large industrial facilities. Thus, an output-based system was applied on January 2019.

PEI is administering a four cent a litre price on gasoline and diesel to comply with federal carbon pricing standards. The government has announced it will reduce the gasoline excise to increase gasoline prices by one cent a litre in 2019 and another cent in 2020.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Quebec

Quebec implemented a cap and trade program in January 2013, which conducts joint auctions of carbon allowances with California, starting in January 2014. Some allowances are freely allocated to specific industries. The program covered industrial and electricity sectors initially, and added fossil fuel distributors in 2015. The emissions cap is 20% below 1990 levels by 2020 and 37.5% below 1990 levels by 2030.

All revenues are directed towards climate change action through the Green Fund, which will be called the the “Electrification and Climate Change Fund” under the proposed Bill 44 tabled in October 2019 . Based on the 2013-2020 review roughly 20% of funds finance building energy efficiency and 66% of funds finance transportation energy efficiency.

Last reviewed: November 2019

Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan implemented an output-based performance standard on January 1, 2019 for large industrial facilities that emit 25,000 tonnes or more per year of C02e per year, with the exception of electricity generation and natural gas transmission pipelines.  Large facilities with emissions between 10,000 and 25,000 tonnes of CO2e may voluntarily register under this standard. 

A carbon price was implemented for electricity generation and natural gas transmission pipelines emissions under the federal government “backstop” in January 2019. Under the federal system, a charge on fuel producers and distributors was applied on April 1, 2019.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Yukon

Yukon has voluntary opted into the federal government carbon pricing system. An output-based pricing system will be implemented for large industry in July 2019 (alongside the other territories). A charge on fuel producers and distributors will start applying in July 2019. Aviation fuels will be exempt, and relief is provided for diesel-fired electricity generation for remote communities.

Last reviewed: August 2019

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